I’m a philosopher, currently working in the Arché Philosophical Research Centre at the University of St Andrews.

If you like, you can:

The art above is by Peder Balke, a Norwegian painter.

Much of my research is in traditional and social epistemology, particularly where these areas connect with questions about psychology, ethics, law, and politics.

For the past few years, I researched the mental states, norms, and goals associated with inquiry in different settings—within individuals, in the courtroom, at the ballot-box, and within academic groups.

This is now turning into a project on responsibility, blame, and punishment — particularly the epistemology of responsibility-attributions (e.g. what cognitive states are involved; how we use statistics), and how we hold people responsible in different contexts (e.g. legally v socially).


  • My paper “Rehabilitating Statistical Evidence” is forthcoming in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research
  • My paper “How Intellectual Communities Progress ” is forthcoming in Episteme
  • I’ll be speaking about the epistemology of electorates in Oxford at the end of July